The dictionaries give a very short definition of the term “ wagon driver '' & mdash; this is the person driving the tram. Today, those who drive this oldest form of public electric transport are often referred to simply as tram drivers. At the same time, the word & nbsp; “ carriage driver '' & nbsp; & nbsp; did not disappear from everyday life. For example, during professional skill contests, the best carriage driver is chosen.
When did the first wagon drivers appear?
The first tram drivers appeared with the first trams (translated from English tram – carriage, bogie and way – track). True, at first they looked more like coachmen. Since they drove not trams, but horse trams & ndash; passenger cars, which were dragged along the rails by horses. & nbsp; According to & nbsp; Big Russian Encyclopedia, in the cities of the Russian Empire the horse-drawn railway was popular until the first half of the XX century.
The domestic development in the field of creating electric transport was carried out by the engineer Fyodor Pirotsky. In 1880, Pirotsky launched the first electric-powered carriage in St. Petersburg, launched on horse-drawn tram rails. Under pressure from horse-drawn car owners who did not want to compete in the lucrative market, the authorities refused to support the innovative idea of horseless transport. Without funding, Pirotsky switched to other projects, and his idea was picked up by inventors from America and Germany. As a result, the world's first regularly operating passenger electric tram line was built by the German company Siemens. And in 1881, the first electric tram was launched in the suburbs of Berlin. & Nbsp; In Russia, regular passenger tram service opened in Kiev only in 1892, & nbsp; gradually spreading & nbsp; across the country. In Moscow, electric & nbsp; trams went in 1899. & nbsp; Intensive growth of tram traffic in Russia fell on 1920-1930. And by 1991, the USSR had the largest tram network in the world.
Why was it hard for the first train driver to work?
A working day could last 12-16 hours in one shift, with a short break. The tram control platforms were not glazed (as they are now), but open. They had to work in bad weather, and while standing, as it was not allowed to sit down while driving.
It was possible to stop the multi-ton car only with the help of a heavy hand brake. Therefore, at first there were only two stops – at the beginning of the railway track and at the end. Later, the trams were braked at the request of passengers, and then in specially designated places. True, passengers for a long time, out of habit, continued to jump and jump out of trams on the move, exposing themselves to mortal danger.
So, in the Nizhny Novgorod chronicle there was a complaint about the work of the tram personnel. “ We are being asked to pay attention to the large number of cases of falls when passengers leave the electric railway carriage … Another passenger does not want to go further, and he jumps off the carriage at full speed. And the majority of the public on the road is unfamiliar with the consequences that may accompany a jump from a carriage, '' reads an appeal to the administration of the electric road. The request ends with the phrase: “ It would not hurt to persuade the conductors to either stop the carriages every time at the request of passengers, or prevent inexperienced people from jumping out of the carriage on the move. ''
Until 1920, in Moscow, people who did not fit into the carriages, clung to them and rode on the & nbsp; steps, called “ gallows. '' However, this phenomenon was widespread outside the capital.
Trams moved on average at a speed of 12 km per hour. In Kursk, for example, where the tram service opened in 1898, the city government ordered that drivers should not travel faster than the governor's carriage.
Another disadvantage of the work of carriage drivers in the years of formation of electric transport was the lack of basic conditions for rest. They ate wherever they had to, and slept as well. In the history of Nizhny Novgorod trams in the period from 1896 to 1919, it is indicated, for example, that at the terminal stations of the tram lines there were no office premises for heating personnel. In winter, the drivers and conductors themselves made yurts out of snow, filled them with water and hid there from the wind.
And in Barnaul in 1940-1950, so as not to freeze in winter, the carriage drivers put heated bricks under their feet in their cabins and wore double felt boots.
What did the tram drivers wear in Soviet times?
In the Soviet Union, the tram belonged to the communal services and was run by the NKVD. The carriage driver was ordered to wear a uniform (jacket and cap). And in the buttonhole – an icon depicting a crossed hammer and a French key, told in 2016 & nbsp; AiF.ru & nbsp; former tram drivers from Omsk, spouses – Evgeny & nbsp; Fedorovich and Valentina Mikhailovna Lisin .
< p>According to the portal & nbsp; russian-symbolics.rf, a hammer and a French adjustable wrench in different years were depicted on the distinctive signs (in whole or as part of the emblems) of repair brigades (1922), command personnel of military communications and railway troops, students of the military transport academy, cadets schools of military communications (1936) and even on the shoulder straps of chemical defense troops (1943).
Also at antique auctions you can find uniform buttons of carriage drivers of the first half of the 20th century. They depict a tram with a pantograph standing on the rails.
By the way, women were not particularly fond of uniforms. “I wanted to dress up,” recalls Valentina Lisina, “we had such beauties! Some foreign film stars could have envied some of their hairpieces. ''
When did the first female tram drivers appear? This is primarily due to high physical exertion and poor working conditions.
Everything changed on January 28, 1914, when the First World War began. Men began to be taken to the front and only then were women allowed to work in the transport sector. And that & ndash; a conductor or a switchman.
Maria Nikolaevna Litvinenko became the first woman-driver in Crimea. In spite of all the prohibitions, she mastered the profession of a carriage driver and went on a voyage.
“ The first year after the launch of the tram in Simferopol, it was served exclusively by men. In 1915, when I entered the Belgian tram company, a driver quietly began teaching me. I used to drive the car from the current Budyonny Street to a dead end and give the handle to the driver. But now, having learned how to drive, she drove the carriage herself. And then a story happened: the rich passengers were afraid that the car was being driven by a woman, they told the director of the joint-stock company. We were both summoned and deprived of our salaries. But I was saved by the fact that at that time it was difficult to hire a man: there was a war. So you can consider me the first female driver of a Simferopol tram, '' Litvinenko said in an interview with & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; '' Crimean Truth & nbsp; in 1955.
After the October Revolution, the new Soviet government promoted equality of labor. From that time on, the female carriage drivers gradually ceased to shock the passengers.
How did the carriage drivers work in the early years of the Great Patriotic War?
During the Great Patriotic War, martial law was introduced not only in cities, but also in tram depots. The train drivers were required to be extremely careful not to be detected by the enemy from the air. A blackout regime was announced, which prescribed to reduce the interior lighting and the glow of the headlights in the tram at night. In addition, it was necessary to mask the & nbsp; depots and factories where trams were produced.
So, in the first years of the war, by a decree of the Moscow Executive Committee (end of June 1941), rules were developed for the operation of carriage brigades in conditions of air raid and chemical attack:
- The carriage drivers and conductors at work were required to have a working gas mask with them. Put them on at the signal of a chemical alarm.
- At night, the normal lighting of the cars switched to camouflage.
- At the signal of the air alarm, the driver was obliged to stop the tram urgently, and in such a place so as not to interfere traffic. & nbsp; & nbsp; It was also forbidden to brake at intersections, bridges or at large factories and military units.
- The tram driver and conductor were prohibited from leaving the car, except in accidents. After releasing the passengers, the driver had to close the carriage, all windows and “ monitor everything that happened on the street. ''
- After the air raid was cleared, the movement of the carriages was restored.
- If any of damage, the train drivers had to immediately report them by phone to the dispatcher.
The trams were supposed to go on the line during the day without technical problems, but night repairs due to constant air raids made these requirements virtually impracticable. Sudden raids provoked accidents on the roads, as drivers had to drive in the dark at high speed. Sometimes, whole lines of faulty trams lined up.
In addition to working by profession, the metropolitan tram drivers helped the city as best they could. & Nbsp; For example, in October-November 1941, on the outskirts of Moscow, construction of defensive structures was carried out, in which 800 trams took part at the same time.
Are trams popular today?
According to the Institute of Natural Monopolies Problems, from 2004 to 2013 alone, the number of Russian cities with their own tram network decreased by 9%. In 2003, the tram fleet was in 67 cities, and in 2014 it remained in only 61 cities. At the same time, from 2000 to 2011, the length of tram lines decreased by 16.7% (from 3,000 km to 2,500 km). Nevertheless, the profession of a carriage driver has not lost its relevance to this day.
How can you become a wagon driver?
To become a wagon driver, you need to meet the following requirements:
- Age & ndash; not less than 21 years old.
- Health status & ndash; & nbsp; undergo a medical examination, take a certificate of lack of registration in a narcological or neuropsychiatric dispensary.
- Paul & ndash; not important.
In addition, you will need to undergo training from a prospective employer (approximately six months). During which the future tram driver will learn not only traffic rules, but also the basics of working with mechanical, electrical and pneumatic equipment. And he will also successfully pass the exam at the traffic police and undergo an internship in transport (about 200 hours) under the supervision of an instructor. Many companies pay scholarships to future tram drivers during their training in & nbsp; the minimum wage.
The average salary of a tram driver in the country, according to job search services (hh.ru & nbsp; and & nbsp; avito.ru), is – & nbsp; from 25 & nbsp; 000 to 60 & nbsp; 000 rubles.
Sources of information:
Our Nizhny Novgorod tram: to the 110th anniversary of the Russian tram/Yu.M. Kossoy. – Nizhny Novgorod: Shtrikh-N, 2006. – P. 7-25.